Studi di Storia dell'Arte 28

21x29,7 bross, pp. 334;  ill. b/n e col, 2017 - ISSN 1123-5683 - € 60,00
COMITATO SCIENTIFICO
Liliana Barroero, Giovanna Capitelli, Stefano Casciu, Stefano Causa, Enrico Maria Dal Pozzolo, Cristina De Benedictis,  Cristina Galassi, Gert Kreytenberg, Francesco Federico Mancini, Enrica Neri Lusanna, Steffi Roettgen,
Pietro Ruschi, Erich Schleier, Nicolas Schwed, Angelo Tartuferi, Anchise Tempestini.

Marcello Castrichini direttore responsabile
Silvia de Luca
Ubertus: il ritratto di un artista medievale e qualche considerazione sulla sua officina

Ubertus: Portrait of a medieval artist and some consideration on his workshop


The wayside cross in Cortona, Museo dell’Accademia Etrusca, is one of the few exemplars of this particular type of artworks surviving in Tuscany. From IX to XIII century this kind of sculptures was widespread in other Italian regions, such as Emilia Romagna. The Cortona cross comes from the ancient Cathedral of San Vincenzo (destroyed in XVIII century) and it was probably stood up in the churchyard. On the front side of the cross, an inscription reads: “Ubertus m(agister ?) f(ecit)”. Above, Ubertus is represented kneeling, receiving the blessing of God. His self-portrait can be compared with other medieval artworks in which artists have depicted themselves in order to offer their work to God and to obtain redemption. The two most famous precedents are the slab of “magester Ursus” at Ferentillo (San Pietro in Valle abbey, 739-742 c.) and the portrait of Vuolvino on the golden altar of Sant’Ambrogio in Milan (850 c.). Ubertus’ self-portrait is similar to those of some miniaturists too, such as Engilbertus (1160-1170 c.), William de Brailes (1240 c.) and Matthew Paris (1250-59).
The style of the reliefs of the cross allows to recognize Ubertus’s hand in decorating the doorways of the churches of Santa Maria di Confine (1165) and San Salvatore sull’Isola Maggiore in Tuoro sul Trasimeno, and in a fragmentary slab walled up in SS. Maria e Egidio abbey in Petroia (Città di Castello). This language achieves similar results to some Emilian Romanesque examples. On one hand, it descends from Byzantine art, on the other one it transposes the novelties radiating from the near Sant'Antimo abbey.
Subsequently, Ubertus and his workshop may have moved to Perugia, as it is shown by the comparison between the Cortona wayside cross and some fragments of a destroyed portal of San Lorenzo Cathedral (now Perugia, Museo Diocesano). To the same workshop can be ascribed the right jamb of the doorway of the church of San Costanzo in Perugia.


Raffaele Argenziani
Caccia al ladro. Cronaca dell’incauto acquisto di una tavola di Guido da Siena per la chiesa di Sant'Andrea alla Badia Ardenga e la sua ricostruzione
Hunt the thief. Chronicle of the careless purchase of a table by Guido da Siena for the Church of Sant'Andrea at the Badia Ardenga and its reconstruction

This work is about the panel portraying Scenes of Christ’s life, realized by the painters Guido da Siena and Dietisalvi di Speme coming from the Church of S. Andrea in Badia Ardenga, Montalcino. The recent publication of the documents – mainly unpublished – found by Fabio Bisogni about the trial for the incautious purchase made by Johann Anton Ramboux of three of the fifteen plates in which the original painting had been reduced will help to try and reconstruct the painting as accurately as possible the way it must have been up to 1841. At that time Father Gabriello Balestrieri, parish priest of the Church of S. Andrea alla Badia Ardenga, sold the painting to Giuseppe Pianigiani and Giovanni Petrilli, who sawed it in fifteen plates so as to get the most out of the sale. Today only twelve of the fifteen plates remain.

Joseph Polzer
Who was the primary illuminator of Guido da Pisa’s Commentary on Dante’s Inferno in Chantilly?
Chi è stato l'illuminatore principale del commento di Guido da Pisa all'inferno di Dante a Chantilly?

This study concerns the identity of the principal illuminator of Manuscript 597 of Guido da Pisa’s Commentary on Dante’s Inferno in the Musée Condé in Chantilly, generally referred to as Cha. It was surely produced in Pisa around the mid to later thirties of the trecento. Its illuminations rank among the finest to be found in late medieval Italian manuscripts. The image on folio 31r where Guido offers the manuscript to Lucano Spinola, his noble Genoese patron is exceptionally advanced in its realism. The identity of this illuminator has been the subject of recent discussion. As indicated in Chiara Balbarini’s doctoral dissertation L’inferno di Chantilly submitted at the University of Pisa in 2005 and published in 2011 many Pisan scholars identify this illuminator with Francesco Traini who was Pisa’s leading painter of the mid-trecento. His principal work is the Saint Dominic Altarpiece in the Pisa Museum, which was completed in 1345. Differently, Millard Meiss, whose article in the Art Bulletin of 1933 first clarified Traini’s oeuvre, definitely denied Traini’s identification with Cha’s primary illuminator in his publications of the 1960’s, although later in an article that appeared in 1971 he wasn’t quite so sure. Here I deny Traini’s authorship of Cha’s illuminations on both stylistic and chronological grounds. I realized in the fall of 1967 on the basis of the close stylistic connection of the early Campo Santo murals to a mural in the old baptismal chapel of Arezzo Cathedral that both were by the same master. At the time a young Italian art historian Pier Paolo Donati attributed the Aretine mural to Buffalmaco on documentary grounds. Pooling this information I concluded that Buffalmacco, who resided in Pisa in 1336, was the master of the early Campo Santo murals. Since then Buffalmacco’s authorship of the latter has been widely accepted. Significantly, these murals substantially influenced Traini’s later Saint Dominic Altarpiece. Buffalmacco’s Pisan murals offer the closest stylistic connections to Cha’s primary illuminator’s oeuvre, in particular as regards the realism of the Presentation scene, and also in the shared diversified zoomorphic shapes of the demons that abound in both their works, including even the demons’ weapons. Not a single demon or devil appears in Traini’s entire available oeuvre.


Gert Kreytenberg
Florentiner Skulpturen an der Schwelle zur Renaissance
Sculture fiorentine sulla soglia del Rinascimento

I concetti artistici e le posizioni prese che nell’ultimo decennio del Trecento hanno determinato la scultura fiorentina, unitamente sono presenti nella decorazione della Porta della Mandorla del Duomo fiorentino, realizzata in tre fasi dal 1391 fino al 1422. Negli anni 1391- 1397 furono eseguiti i rilievi nelle strombature, nelle cornici della porta e nell’architrave (fig. 3), in più le due statue dell’Annunciazione del timpano (figg. 11, 12) e i due profeti posti nei tabernacoli. Secondo i documenti Giovanni d’Ambrogio era stato l’ideatore della decorazione del portale e, verosimilmente, ha lasciato l’autoritratto sull’architrave (fig. 2). Quattro scultori hanno partecipato all’addobbo delle strombature (figg. 4-7): Giovanni d’Ambrogio (strombatura sinistra, blocco inferiore e superiore) e Piero di Giovanni Tedesco (strombatura sinistra, blocco di mezzo), Niccolò di Pietro Lamberti (strombatura destra, blocco inferiore e superiore) e Jacopo di Pietro Guidi (strombatura destra, blocco di mezzo). Mentre Piero di Giovanni Tedesco risente ancora di un concetto di tradizione gotica, Giovanni d’Ambrogio va considerato il maestro più innovativo che nelle sue opere manifesta uno studio intensivo dell’antico. Il più giovane del gruppo, Niccolò di Pietro Lamberti, rimane fedele al gotico internazionale, Jacopo di Pietro Guidi, invece, presenta una concezione figurativa veramente espressiva. Il quinto partecipante al lavoro della porta era Lorenzo, figlio di Giovanni d’Ambrogio, che realizzò il blocco destro nell’architrave e i due profeti nei tabernacoli accanto al timpano.
Alla fine del 1397 Giovanni d’Ambrogio fu chiamato a Roma per erigere il monumento funebre del cardinale Philippe d’Alencon in Santa Maria in Trastevere. Presto fece venire come collaboratori il figlio Lorenzo e Piero di Giovanni Tedesco. Inoltre Giovanni d’Ambrogio era impegnato nella realizzazione della tomba del cardinale Adam Easton (morto nello stesso anno 1397) in Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. Con le sculture eseguite da Lorenzo per questa tomba (figg. 20, 21) artisticamente concordano due mezze figure di angeli finora sconosciuti (figg. 18, 19), di cui uno suona la tuba o il trombone. Lo strumento, spezzatosi al punto dell’imboccatura, indica un contesto di morte, giudizio e risurrezione e quindi la funzione in una cappella funebre. Tuttavia i due angeli sono stati realizzati piuttosto come figure intere che mezze figure, essi non sono statue bensì rilievi, in quanto si individuano ancora tracce dello sfondo nei bordi dei nimbi e nella spalla dell’angelo destro. Per via dell’affinità artistica dei due angeli con le sculture lasciate da Lorenzo nella succitata tomba, è lecito domandarsi se queste non abbiano fatto parte della decorazione della “Cappella della Madonna” che conteneva la tomba del cardinale.


The artistic concepts and the positions taken in the last decade of the 14th century did determine the fiorentine sculpture and came together in the decoration of the “Porta della Mandorla” in the Florentine Cathedral, realized in three phases between 1391 and 1422. In the years between 1391 and 1397 the reliefs were realized in the splays, in the door’s frame and in the lintel (fig. 3). Moreover, the two statues of Annunciation intended for the tympanum were sculpted (figg. 11,12) together with the two prophets (figg. 14,15) to be placed in the tabernacle. According to the documents, Giovanni D’Ambrogio was the author of the portal’s decoration and, most likely, he left his self portrait in the architrave (fig. 2). Four sculptors partecipated in the decoration of the splays (figg. 4-7): Giovanni D’Ambrogio (left splay, under and upper block) and Piero di Giovanni Tedesco (left splay, middle block), Niccolò di Pietro Lamberti (right splay, under and upper block) and Jacopo di Pietro Guidi (right splay, middle block). Whether Piero di Giovanni is still following a conception of the gothic tradition,Giovanni D’Ambrogio has to be considered the most innovative master which is manifested in his works with an intense study of antiquity. The youngest artist of the group, Niccolò di Pietro Lamberti, remains loyal to the International Gothic, while Jacopo di Pietro Guidi, in contrast, presents a figurative conception really expressive. The fifth artitst that partecipates in the work of the porta was Lorenzo, son of Giovanni D’Ambrogio, who realized the right block of the lintel and two prophets in the tabernacles next to the tympanum.
At the end of 1397, Giovanni D’Ambrogio was convocated to Rome in order to realize the funeral monument of the cardinal Philippe d’Alençon in Santa Maria in Trastevere. He made his son Lorenzo and Piero di Giovanni Tedesco come for collaboration. Moreover, Giovanni D’Ambrogio was also busy in the construction of the tomb of the cardinal Adam Easton (died in the same year 1397) in Santa Cecilia in Trastevere. The sculptures done by Lorenzo for this tomb (fig. 20-21) artistically agree on the realization of two half figures of angels yet unknown (figg. 18-19), one of which is playing the tuba or the trombone. The instrument, broken at the mouthpiece, indicate a context of death, judegement and resurrection and as such shows the function in a funeral chapel. However, the two angels were realized more as entire figures rather than halved. In fact, those are reliefs rather than statues as there are still signs of a connection with the relief ground at the borders of the nimbus and the right angel’s shoulder point. Due to the artistic affinity of the two angels with the sculptures left by Lorenzo in the above mentioned tomb, is licit to question the hypothesis of these statues being part of the decoration of the “Cappella della Madonna” which has hosted the cardinal’s funeral monument.


Annamaria Giusti
Un capolavoro di assemblaggio: il sepolcro di Ilaria Del Carretto
A masterpiece of assembly: The Sepulchre of Ilaria Del cart

Ilaria del Carretto’s tomb is a renowned yet still enigmatic work of art. This article addresses the aspect it has today: does it truly reflect its original form? By reading ancient sources and looking at successive assemblages of the monument, the article reconstructs the transformations, or rather manipulations, that Ilaria’s tomb underwent over time. In the mid-sixteenth century, Giorgio Vasari saw the sepulchre on a wall, with the gisante statue resting on a urn and separated from the right panel with the putti; later, in the seventeenth century, that panel became the base of the sepulchre. In the eighteenth century, the urn disappeared, leaving a trilateral sarcophagus; in the nineteenth century, the foliated cross, presumably built from scratch, was inserted at the foot of the tomb. This one later became the isolated sarcophagus that we see today, after incorporating the second panel with the putti, which had been found in 1828 in the Guinigi palace. Finally, in 1913 the sarcophagus was completed with the arms that were “discovered” in the city museum, but in fact ingeniously falsified. Given this intricate history, a number of issues can be raised, regarding the true identity of the deceased as well as the commission and original position of the tomb, and the artistic relevance of its different elements.

Angelo Tartuferi

Mariotto di Nardo: per la reintegrazione di due tabernacoli a sportelli
Mariotto di Nardo: For the reintegration of two tabernacles at doors

Four panels by the florentine painter Mariotto di Nardo (ca. 1365 – 1424) which were at the end of the 19th C. in the famous Gallery of the Corsini Palace in Florence have been recently purchased by the Galleria dell’Accademia in Florence. The paintings are here identified as the surviving parts of the two wings of a dispersed tabernacle, which originally were probably larger in size. It was undoubtedly one of the most important commissions of the last phase in the activity of the prolific painter, perhaps relative to a building or a chapel with a patronage by the Corsini family, for which Mariotto di Nardo had already worked at the beginning of the last decade of the 14th C.
The rich decoration of the gilded plaster which characterizes the panels appear very similar to those of two others wings of an another dispersed tabernacle in the Museum of Altenburg, the central part of which is here tentatively idendified with the Coronation of the Virgin with six music-making angels conserved for a long time in the Certosa del Galluzzo near Florence and now in the Galleria dell’Accademia in Florence.

Samantha Reboldi
Nell’officina dei Santacroce: derivazioni e combinazioni
In the workshop of the Santacroce: Derivations and combinations

This article sheds new light on the pictorial production of the Santacroce workshop, founded by bergamasco Girolamo, carried on by his son Francesco and later by his nephew Pietro Paolo, and active in Venice from the beginning of the sixteenth century up to the first decades of the following century.
Focusing on detection and analysis of figurative, literary and cultural sources, - mostly unpublished- in many works appeared punctual relations coming both from pictorial sources, unconnected to the workshop (not only derivations from Giovanni Bellini, as widely documented from the previous criticism) and from graphic field, Italian and Nordic, where surely stand out Albrecht Dürer’s incisions..
The survey demonstrated that the Santacroce did not approach these figurative sources in an always identical way but, on the opposite, they were able to extrapolate from time to time the most congenial images mixing them and sometimes hidding them in a new context.
This analysis, in addition to reiterating the importance of prints circulation in the diffusion of figurative models, has in some cases a key role in the final definition of the catalog of the artists in question: in fact some dated prototypes become post-quem terms for the chronological placement of specific pictures so that they can be eliminated from an artist's inventory and attributed with certainty to another. This fundamental step allows to eliminate attributive doubts that are otherwise hardly disentangled, due to stylistic similarity and repetitions of similar patterns within the same workshop.


Maria Cristina Chiusa
Fra una sponda e l’altra del fiume: un’aggiunta per Correggio ‘benedettino’
Between one side of the river: an addition to Correggio 'Benedictine'

The contribution, enriched by the witness of a new document and by the technical-scientific results about pictorial modes of Correggio, is dedicated to the work of the artist at the Benedictine monastery of San Giovanni Evangelista in Parma. A deepening on the Frieze of the Prophecies in the central nave of the church has allowed give back to the master a large part of this decoration, and a revision of the dates of execution of the frescoes in Parma.
Moreover the iconographic survey revealed significant inspiration of painter to the texts of St. John (Apocalypse in particular) in the monastery of San Giovanni in Parma: a common choice to that of the main protagonists of the cassinese circuit in the 16th century, that involved, besides the Emilian city, a vast network of abbeys, including that of San Benedetto Po. Within a broad debate the painter could count on numerous cultured interlocutors and patrons.
A comparative study of contemporary artistic enterprises, of the Po Valley especially, highlights the circulation of ideas and practices among the monasteries of Santa Giustina. In this circuit there is a constant relationship with the biblical and Patristic sources, frequented assiduously by monks, in particular in the monastery of San Benedetto Po.

Gabriele Capecchi
Eleonora di Toledo e il Villano con la Botticella. Modelli iconologici dall'antico e devozione privata alla corte di Cosimo I

Eleonora of Toledo and the villain with the Banda. Iconologici models from ancient and private devotion to the court of Cosimo I


Architectural example of the Medici intimacy, the 'Grotta Grande' of Palazzo Pitti was born in 1556 around the Peasant with the barrel fountain which Baccio Bandinelli entrusts to Nanni of Stocco, adopting the archaeological legacies studied in his Roman years and drawn in particular from the Cesi collection. For Eleonora of Toledo, the statue - alter ego of Cosimo I as rational 'soul' - is nevertheless the iconographic ruse to dramatize a purification path that, through the spring waters of the nymphaeum and the symbolism of the fitting figures, explains the religious mind of the customer, open to the movement of the 'Spirituali' and to the instances of reformation within Catholicism. In its original shape, the pavillion - then dismembered for political needs - is part of a large cultural phenomenon of the early Principato. Boates of Valdesian thought could be identified in many court paintings (the frescoes in Eleonora’s private chapel in Palazzo Vecchio), in the literary Accademia Fiorentina (glaring is Giovan Battista Gelli's position, Cosimo Bartoli, Benedetto Varchi), to reach the ruling class of Cosimo’s society (the powerful ‘maggiordomo’ Pierfrancesco Riccio, Caterina Cybo, Bartolomeo Panciatichi, just to recall the most involved).

Stefano De Mieri
Intorno a Pietro Negroni
Around Pietro Negroni

This article is dedicated to the painter from Calabria Pietro Negroni, one of the most relevant artists of the XVI century in Naples.
In particular, through discussion about unedited works, we depean Negroni’s young activity, that stands near his master’s Marco Cardisco.
The catalogue of the artist’s works is enlarged through the discovery of unknown paintings, even of the older period, as the altarpiece in the St. Andrew’s church in the Legittimo cottage in Piano di Sorrento and two small paintings with the prophets David and Geremia, part of a private Neapolitan collection, originally with other four ones, with the prophets Isaia, Giacobbe, Isacco and Abramo, now in exposition at the Bob Jones Collection in Greenville. These last ones are quite surely near the painting of the Immaculate in the church of the Cappuccinelle in Cosenza.
The redefinition of the painter’s career is enrichened by the publication of three new documents that demonstrate his activity in Naples in the 1548-1550, working for rich and noble families.
We also discuss some news about one of the painter’s son, Raffaele Negroni, and one of his possible descendants, Pietro Negroni, who worked in Naples in the last decades of the XVI century.

 

 


Francesco Federico Mancini
La Strage degli Innocenti di Giovan Battista Ingoni: un’opera ritrovata

The Massacre of the Innocents of Giovan Battista Ingoi: a work found


An unpublished painting by Giovan Battista Ingoni from Modena contributes to shed light on a little-documented artist of the period of counter-reformation. It is a Strage of the innocents traded in the eighteenth century for a work by Federico Zuccari and in the early twentieth century curiously disappeared. The Ingoni, which came to Perugia at the end of the sixth decade of the sixteenth century, had been known for fragmentary frescoes for the Chapel of Corgna’s family in San Francesco al Prato. The painting is most likely in the years when the artist, between 1568 and 1578, probably works next to Federico Zuccari and Girolamo Muziano at the great paintings for the Orvieto’s Cathedral.

Laura Teza

Considerazioni sul Martirio di santa Caterina d'Alessandria di Federico Zuccari
Considerations on the Martyrdom of Saint Catherine of Alexandria by Federico Zuccari

The Martyrdom of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, now in the collection of the Cassa di Risparmio Foundation of Perugia, has recently been identified as a work by Federico Zuccari. The painting is signed with the emblem of the painter, the sugar loaf, and is dated 1582. It offers the opportunity for numerous, compositive comparisons with his previous paintings such as the Plague of the flies of the Moses cycle in the apartment of Belvedere in the Vatican, St. Catherine's Preaching in the church of Santa Caterina dei Funari in Rome and with the missing painting with the Procession of St. Gregory for the Paolo Ghiselli's chapel in Santa Maria del Baraccano in Bologna. Considering the date - 1582 - the painting can be traced back to the trip to the Diet of Augusta, Germany, that Zuccari made in July of that year. We do not know other mobile paintings with this subject and therefore the picture now in Perugia can be identified with the Saint Catherine present in 1705 in Dusseldorf in the collection of Elector Palatine John William II, and reported in a travel diary of the French gentleman J. de Blainville.

Antonio Vannugli
Doni dall’Italia per il segretario Mateo Vázquez de Leca: Marcantonio Colonna e Ferdinando de’ Medici fanno a gara


Between 1581 and 1583, Scipione Pulzone painted a Way to Calvary for Marcantonio Colonna, then viceroy of Sicily. Colonna sent it as a gift to Mateo Vázquez de Leca, secretary to Philip II, in order to maintain his support at the Spanish court and help the ecclesiastical career of his son Ascanio, who delivered the painting in Madrid. When Vázquez died, the painting was inherited by his homonimous nephew. In 1607, the latter took it with him to Seville, where it was described by Pacheco. But in the same year 1583, also cardinal Ferdinando de’ Medici planned to send to Spain a replica of the same painting that Pulzone himself had made at his request; this confirms that Pulzone’s image appeared to meet perfectly with Spanish predilection, well and wide known in Rome, for the pathetic in religious art. These, as well as the other presents that Colonna and Medici made to Vázquez, demonstrate once more the importance that secretaries had reached in the court of Spain under Philip II. Besides, the article offers a philological comparison of the six copies or derivations of Pulzone’s Way to Calvary that have come to light after the first autograph version was published; this is now identified with the replica painted for cardinal Ferdinando.

Manuela Nocella
Marcantonio De Marchis mercante di stoffe e quadri. Un 'patito' del Brandi nella Roma del Seicento
Marcantonio De Marchis Merchant of cloths and paintings. A ' buff ' of Brandi in the seventeenth century Rome


This study is about the discovery of a new figure of a merchant and art collector in Rome in the XVII century, Marcantonio De Marchis (around 1625-1684), a 'setarolo' (silk seller) who lived and worked close to Piazza Navona, an area where many textile shops were placed. His shop, managed with his brother Giovanni, was located just under his elegant house where he collected more than 200 paintings of contemporary painters mostly. His house worked also as an art gallery, where De Marchis could show his wares to the potential buyers that chose their paintings directly from its walls. The discovery of the Inventary of his goods allowed me to inspect several aspects of his life, especially his preference for Giacinto Brandi's paintings, whose he collected an impressive quantity: 65 ones. Among all his rich art collection, I tried to identify several changes of ownership from De Marchis' house to that of several important personalities of the political, religious and cultural environment of the time, like the Count Giulio Camillo Campori and the bankers and art collectors Donato Fini and Giovanni Antonio Parravicini, just to list some of the numerous figures that emerged from the documentation in our possession (including Christina di Svezia and the Abbot Lorenzo Megalotti).

Anna Maria Ambrosini Massari
Giuseppe Diamantini e Giacinto Brandi. Incontro a Urbino
Giuseppe Diamantini and Giacinto Brandi. Meeting in Urbino

Inside two prestigious palaces, today the offices of the University of Urbino, we can surprisingly find two important paintings, which can be assigned to the respective authors: a San Girolamo with the angel of judgment to Giuseppe Diamantini born in Fossombrone, near Urbino - naturalized Venetian though - and a Saint Agatha to the Roman painter Giacinto Brandi.
The works, for which it is possible to reconstruct their origins, are appropriate to enlighten the precise stages in the career of the two painters, who were contemporaries but operating in very different areas; yet they shared the connection with the Marches, due to his birth and early education as for Diamantini, and because of the numerous occasions for committed jobs as for Brandi.
In particular, with reference to Diamantini, the painting, strongly marked by the Bolognese cultural stamp, makes it possible to clarify, even thanks to new dated drawings, the first decade of autonomous activity in Venice which is less clear in its evolution: from the more pronounced influence of Guido Cagnacci to being stuck to the style of Pietro Liberi, here testified by a new, remarkable painting attributable to the painter of Fossombrone, representing Venus crying on dying Adonis.


Stefania Ventra
“coll’Arte ha mostrato il nostro Secolo superiore”. Giuseppe Ghezzi, l’Accademia di San Luca e Bernini come vessillo del primato di Roma moderna
"With art has shown our upper century." Giuseppe Gallego, the Accademia di San Luca and Bernini as banner of the primacy of modern Rome

The article proposes a new interpretation of Giuseppe Ghezzi's thought and work, usually considered the paladin of classical worship defense, which would characterize Roman academic culture. Crossing a careful reading of the book dedicated to the centenary of the foundation of the Academy of San Luca with documentary research, analysis of the artist's pictorial work and his well-known collector and exhibition organizer activity, we learn instead a peculiar critical position that surpasses the aesthetic theories of Giovan Pietro Bellori. Ghezzi, and the Academy with him, conclude the Seventeenth century with a tribute to the last century, to its artistic accomplishments and above all to the most extraordinary interpreter of the season, far from being condemned or censured: Bernini. His work, extraordinary both for technical intelligence and for prestige acquired, was the best example for an institution voted on the one hand to the didactics of artistic work and on the other to the promotion of the social role of artists.

Alessandra Morelli
I rinnovamenti seicenteschi e settecenteschi in San Girolamo e San Francesco alla Costa a Firenze: Atanasio Bimbacci e i suoi contemporanei a confronto

The seventeenth-century and eighteenth in San -girolamo e San Francesco alla Costa in Florence: Atanasio Bimbacci compared to his contemporaries

 

San Girolamo e San Francesco alla Costa church, in Florence, belonging to the homonymous monastery founded in 1382, has been the subject of intermittent and inaccurate attention by historiographic treatises and by city guides.
Since it had been built in 1432 according to the will of the Florentine Republic, it was renovated for the first time between 1515 and 1520, thanks to commission of Antonio Pucci, the bishop of Pistoia.
Referring to seventeenth-century and eighteenth-century, there was a significant gap to fill, since this period has been passed over by written literature about the church.
It indeed was victim of Napoleonic Suppression and then was closed to the public after the settlement of Reggimento di Fanteria in 1866 and the settlement of Caserma Vittorio Veneto in 1928. For these reasons it did not attract the interest of historians, erudites and writers.
Thanks to the analysis of the rich and never explored archive produced by religious community of San Girolamo e San Francesco alla Costa, as well as the documents drawn up by napoleonic officers, and thanks to the inspections carried out into the building, the missing dowel has been recreated.
The church in fact was interested by several commissions and renovation activities (particularly between 1700 and 1705), whose protagonists were artists such as Giovan Battista Foggini, Anton Domenico Gabbiani, Pier Dandini and his disciples and the less famous Atanasio Bimbacci.
Thanks to this work, it has been possible both to increase the catalog of those artists and to discover unpublished frescoes.

Rita Randolfi
Da Roma ad Ascoli Piceno. La storia del presunto ritratto di Maria Gavotti in Cussida

From Rome to Ascoli Piceno. The story of the alleged portrait of Maria Gavotti in Cussida

 

Through the Gavotti’s inventories it is possible follow the history of A woman’s portrait, by Tiberio Titi, now in Ascoli Piceno.The painting remains in Rome, in Gavotti’s palace in via delle Tre Cannelle, until the acquisition by Antonio Ceci, who, at his death, leaving his collection in part to Ascoli partly Pisa. Perhaps the woman portrayed is Gavotti Maria, widow of Francis and daughter in law of Peter Cussida, from whom he inherited a rich collection of paintings.

 

Serenella Rolfi Ožvald
La “rosa d’oro”, Rubens e Piranesi. Le arti e il cerimoniale di stato: doni, visite e invii di opere alla corte austriaca nel 1780 e 1819

The "Golden Rose", Rubens and Piranesi. The arts and the ceremonial of state: gifts, visits and submissions of works to the Austrian court in 1780 and 1819

 

Written sources and other texts – the dictionary of Gaetano Moroni - provides evidence in change in the tradition of diplomatic gift in the course of Eighteenth century. The frequent exchange between the Papal court and the Habsburg monarchy gives sufficient arguments to reconsider the change of habits into the cerimonial and the language of gift. Which is the characteristic of the gift and the innovation in diplomatic practice in the second half of eigtheenth century? This study intend to stress the intersection between public and private diplomacy and the reciprocal influence between Grand Tour and diplomatic gift. Two cases, the visit of Ferdinando governator of Milano in 1780, and the vist of imperor Francesco I in 1819, are the framework of this essay. These two examples drow us the attidute towards change; dialectic between gift with religious connotations and luxury items (illustrated books of G.B. Piranesi, small bronzes of Valadier, mosaics and tapestries), and suggest to paying close attention to the different political attitude compared to the traditional role of the gift. How does the art market and cultural consumption promoted by diplomatic agents affect the lesser importance of the religious sphere of the papal gift? The correspondance of the prince Carlo Francesco Albani, between Milano and Roma, helps to understanding the growing importance of cultural consumption as a vehicle of artiste model and political meanings. The intersection between artists, agents and market, provides a counterpoint of the tradictional gift of the “rosa d’oro” and relics of saints, and showing the contemporary attitudes in which the visit to the artists’ ateliers also become part of the diplomatic cerimonial.

 

Oronzo Brunetti
Lo Scrittoio delle Fortezze e Fabbriche in età lorenese
The desk of the fortresses and factories in Lorraine age

Since the 16th century, the Scrittoio delle Fortezze e Fabbriche was the office responsible for maintaining buildings and public infrastructures of the Granducato di Toscana.
In 1737 Francesco Stefano di Lorena succeeded Giangastone de’ Medici, last of Medici family, but he spent in Florence only few months, as he moved to Vienna.
In 1765 Pietro Leopoldo Habsburg-Lorraine became Grand Duchy and promoted new reforms to improve the welfare and enrich the culture of the state. According to his economy policy, Pietro Leopoldo reorganized the Scrittoio: he renewed roles and personals, fired unreliable employees (Giuseppe Ruggieri) and hired young architects as Gaspare Paoletti e Zanobi Del Rosso who led the Scrittoio for many years. The architects were asked to spare money and all the equipments they had to use. Paoletti became the main architect of Pietro Leopoldo who commissioned him new spaces in Palazzo Pitti, the Museo di Fisica e Storia Naturale, and the Specola (astronomical observatory), works at the Medici Villa di Poggio Imperiale.
The institution of the Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze (1784) was one of the most significant aims of a cultural policy which joined enlightened reforms with re-use of ancient buildings. The Accademia was conceived as a place for studying and working and was connected with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, the factory where the granducal artisans were used to produce precious artifacts.
The Accademia was placed in the ancient Ospedale di San Matteo, one of the many religious structures unused because of the suppression of religious corporations ordered by Pietro Leopoldo. Paoletti re-designed the spaces and some years later he became professor of architecture in the Accademia.

Cristina Galassi
La decorazione del Collegio del Cambio rivisitata nei disegni inediti di Giovanni Cappelli
The decoration of the Collegio del Cambio revisited in the unpublished designs of Giovanni Cappelli

The contribution analyzes the critical and figurative fortune in particular the eighteenth-nineteenth century of the decoration of the College of Cambio of Perugia, taking into consideration the interesting series of unpublished drawings, still preserved in the Archive of the College, made at the end of the eighteenth century by the painter of Ascoli Giovanni Capelli, inspiration for the engravings made by the Roman Francesco Cecchini. The essay is also an in-depth reflection on the revival of Peruginism that involved every form of art and craftsmanship taking as a model the artist's painting, object at the end of the eighteenth century also of the interest of the Napoleonic commissioners who massively requisitioned his works.

 

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