Studi di Storia dell'Arte 25
21x30 bross, pp. 296; ill. b/n e col, 2014 - ISSN 1123-5683
Liliana Barroero, Stefano Causa, Cristina De Benedictis, Anna De Floriani, Gert Kreytenberg,
Francesco Federico Mancini, Enrica Neri Lusanna, Vincenzo Pacelli, Steffi Roettgen, Pietro Ruschi,
Erich Schleier, Nicolas Schwed, Anchise Tempestini.
Un campanile "ravennate" per l’antica Cattedrale di San Lorenzo a Perugia
The history of the Cathedral of San Lorenzo in Perugia is marked by considerable uncertainty, especially prior to the XIV century. In the middle of the X century, the remains of the city’s patron saint, Herculanus, were brought to the cathedral and the bell tower examined here also dates back roughly to this period between the X and XI centuries. The tower is represented in a detailed miniature from 1343 by the Perugian miniaturist Vanni di Baldolo. Owing in part to the type of manuscript in which the miniature appears, containing the testimonies in support of Pope Benedict XI’s grant of indulgence to the Dominicans of Perugia, the image of the building and bell tower is extremely detailed. The tower is cylindrical in the Ravennesque manner, as attested by numerous details, but until now this hypothesis has never been considered because traditionally the cathedral bell tower has been thought to be the polygonal tower whose remains are still visible. It was also represented as polygonal in a painting previously believed to predate the 1343 miniature but which should actually be dated later to 1350-1360. A ‘Ravennesque’ bell tower is not unusual for Perugia, a city under the Byzantine domain until the VIII century and with attested ties to it until the XI century. The cylindrical tower may have remained standing until the first half of the XIV century; the polygonal tower was likely built after 1343, the year that Pope Clement VI granted the city an indulgence to build a new cathedral whose first stone as laid in 1345.
Drei reliefs in Pizzighettone, die pisaner skulptur 1320-1340 und eine frage nach Bonaiuto di Michele
I tre rilievi che raffigurano l’Annunciazione, la Nascita di Cristo e l’Adorazione dei Re Magi, nel 1613 trasferiti da Milano a Pizzighettone nella chiesa di San Bassiano, sono opere di uno scultore pisano come attestano i numerosi richiami a e motivi presenti nei pulpiti di Nicola e Giovanni Pisano a Pisa. La concezione artistica avvicina questi rilievi alle opere di Lupo di Francesco, come ben esemplifica la Madonna Orlandini da lui realizzata (Londra, Victoria & Albert Museum). Altra figura di spicco, documentata a Pisa dal 1315 fino al 1348, e dotata di un talento pari a quello di Lupo di Francesco, fu Bonaiuto di Michele, di cui si conosce, però, come opera certa soltanto l’aquila di Palazzo Sclafani a Palermo. La colomba dello Santo Spirito nel rilievo dell’Annunciazione di Pizzighettone rivela affinità morfologiche (modellato delle ali e delle gambe) proprio con l’aquila di Bonaiuto di Michele. Verosimilmente questo scultore era arrivato a Milano al seguito di Giovanni di Balduccio, intorno al 1335, e aveva realizzato lì i tre rilievi. La Madonna con il Bambino raffigurata nel rilievo dell’Adorazione dei Re Magi sembra sia stata molto apprezzata dalla corte milanese tanto che lo scultore la replicò per due volte, in scala maggiore, come scultura autonoma. Convincentemente Laura Cavazzini ha riconosciuto nel frammento di una figura femminile dolente (già Collezione Liechtenstein) la mano del Maestro dei rilievi di Pizzighettone. A questo scultore, con le dovute cautele qui identificato con Bonaiuto di Michele, andrebbe ascritta anche la statua di una Madonna stante con il bambino che si confronta con la Vergine nel rilievo dell’Adorazione dei Re Magi: infatti le braccia di madre e figlio - staccate dal corpo - conquistano lo spazio in modo nalogo, o per meglio dire, lo spazio penetra la scultura, una caratteristica molto particolare di questo scultore. Come i pastori nel rilievo della Natività, le proporzioni della Madonna stante risultano più tarchiate rispetto alla figura nel rilievo dell’Adorazione dei Re Magi, ma la resa del panneggio, con pieghe che alternano creste lineari e conche, chiaramente collima con le configurazioni nei rilievi di Pizzighettone. Nelle figure della Madonna i visi e le capigliature vantano un modellato analogo (si ricorda in particolare la Madonna già De Carlo).
"Rosso nell’aria di Roma": on some additional sources to Rosso Fiorentino’s Death of Cleopatra
The Death of Cleopatra by Rosso Fiorentino (1525-1527, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum) is the only secular work painted by Rosso before he moved to France. The current study proposes a new reading of the painting, which was recently restored for the exhibition dedicated to Rosso Fiorentino and Pontormo (Palazzo Strozzi, March-July 2014). The new reading of the work proposed in this paper is based both on new details that emerged after the cleaning, and on additional antique sources that might have influenced Rosso’s treatment of the subject. Until now, the work has been interpreted first and foremost as a result of the encounter between Rosso and the antique marbles he had seen in Rome. In painting Cleopatra, he turned to the celebrated marble of the Sleeping Ariadne in the Vatican (considered at the time as representing the suicide of the Egyptian queen) as his main source of inspiration. The present study seeks to broaden the perspective and look not only at the antique marble and the verses written in its honor (by Castiglione and Fausto Romano) but also at other Classical sources that Rosso might have used: Plutarch and Pliny the Elder, as has been previously suggested, as well as a series of Greek and Latin texts such as those by Galen, Nicander of Colophon or Claudius Aelianus. An attentive reading of the work in conjunction with these texts will conduce to a better understanding of the dialogue with the Classical tradition that Rosso undertook upon arriving in Rome. His Cleopatra stands as a paradigm to his prolific and powerful encounter with Antiquity, disregarded by Vasari. This encounter would continue until Rosso’s premature death in France more than a decade later.
Lo Zanni. il corpo, il volto e l’anima del grottesco da Leonardo agli accademici bleniesi
Da Vinci was instrumental in establishing Physiognomy as modern Science. Not only did his speculations on the motion of bodies and his ‘Character Heads’ affected the artistic culture of that time, but he sparked the interest of his followers, among whom Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo stands out. Lomazzo made the bridge between the theory of physiognomy, Da Vinci’s work and the academic context he was operating in, precisely The Lombard Academy of Val Blenio. This was a bizarre but, at the same time, innovative and fecund entity whose members showed - from a figuratively point of view - great interest in facial deformations and preferred the theories of the Tuscan Master to sophisticated theoretical models.
The analysis of some artistic portraits proves this point as Da Vinci’s influence is undeniable. Not only that, but these works o reveal another significant connection: “The comedy of art”, which was an important source of inspiration for Lomazzo’s followers in terms of literary cues and symbolic references. This scenic approach spread starting from the second half of the 16 century and was characterized by a grotesque conception of the human body, which was passed on to the scene through obscene and racy gestures and extreme facial mimicry.
‘The Zanni’ represents the mask that truly embodies the grotesque essence: a telluric being with extreme facial deformities and body movements, upon which scholars shared the concept of popular origin the spirit of innovation and break from fixed patterns to the point where they would identify with it defining themselves as ‘ helpers’, in the footsteps of The Zanni.
A plausible link therefore emerges from Da Vinci’s caricatures, the scholars’ portraits and The Zanni, which all have a grotesque character to them and inherently provoke laughter in order to emphasize the most controversial components of each context in a provocative manner.
Per la committenza del polittico Albani Torlonia
The Albani Torlonia altarpiece, is one of the most important and famous paintings by Pietro Vannucci.
The original story of this painting is still unknown and criticism, traditionally, attributes its commission to Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, the future Pope Julius II. The painting was probably purchased in the eighteenth century, by the important collector and patron, Cardinal Alessandro Albani (died in 1779 ). In 1866 the painting entered the collection of Prince Alessandro Raffaele Torlonia, great banker and refined collector of fine art and antiques. In this paper will propose a hypothesis alternative reading, which opens new perspectives for the study on the activity of Perugino in Rome.
Ferdinando e la Santissima Annunziata. Giambologna, i cortigiani medicei e le cappelle della tribuna
This study is configured as an analysis of a period of great interest in the redefinition of the decoration of the Tribune of the Basilica of the Santissima Annunziata in Florence. In the last decade of the sixteenth century, Giambologna (1529-1608), one of the most important artists of the time, at the top of a long and highly successful career, undertook the reconstruction of the chapel of the Madonna del Soccorso intending to transform the structure in his burial place. Along with Jean Boulogne, four important painters working in the chapel - Giovanni Battista Paggi (1554 - 1627), Bernardino Poccetti (1548 - 1612), Jacopo Ligozzi (1547 - 1627), Passignano (1559 - 1638) - often related to the customer by friendship as well as almost obvious professional relationship.
The reconstruction of the chapel of the Madonna del Soccorso acts as a stimulus for two similar operations carried out within a few years: the reconfiguration of the Beato Manetto chapel- commissioned by the family of Antell- directed by Alessandro Allori (1535 - 1607), and the decoration of the Cieco Nato chapel - commissioned by a merchant family then on the rise, the Brunaccini – based on a project by Passignano.
Francesco Federico ManciniUn Ecce Homo del Cavalier d'Arpino in Palazzo Murena a Perugia
In Palazzo Murena in Perugia, seat of the Rector of the University, is an Ecce Homo, remained unpublished until now despite its high artistic quality. It is a painting on wood that can be convincingly attributed to Cavalier d’Arpino. The stylistic elements that characterize the work they direct us to the late production of the painter (around 1620). Singular is the iconography that, contrary to what is narrated in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John, shows Christ without a crown of thorns.
Gaspare Venturini, le tele dei soffitti del Palazzo dei Diamanti a Ferrara e un quadro di Carlo Bononi Problemi attributivi
The article is concerned with the attributions of three octagonal pictures of similar size with figures of antique gods in foreshortening seen from below. All of them are or have been connected with the ceiling decorations in two rooms in the Palazzo dei Diamanti in Ferrara (1592-93). They all have been recently attributed to the late mannerist painter Gaspare Venturini (died 1593), wrongly in the author’s opinion on the basis of a document of payment of July 10, 1593 (published by S. Cavicchioli 1991). The painting of “Vulcan” (now Modena, Galleria Estense), formerly attributed to Giulio Cromer, definitely comes from the Palazzo dei Diamanti, and such a provenance is likely also for the picture of “Pan” (Melbourne, National Gallery of Victoria), which has been wrongly attributed also to Annibale and Ludovico Carracci. Both pictures are probably by the same hand, that of an unknown Ferrarese painter of ca. 1592 with affinities to the Carracci. The third painting “Juno” emerged only in 2009 in a French sale and was published by B. Ghelfi (2011) also as by Venturini, on the basis of the quoted document of 1593. In the author’s opinion, the picture is a mature work of Carlo Bononi (Ferrara 1584 ca.- 1632), painted around 1620 or a little later.
La famiglia Del Nero di Firenze. Proprietà, patrimonio e collezioni. Il palazzo del Nero (oggi Torrigiani in piazza dei Mozzi). IIa parte
he first paragraph of this second part of the article investigates the history of another Del Nero mansion in Florence, the so-called “Casino Del Nero” or “Conventino” (which is nowadays part of a luxury hotel), where a ceiling fresco by the painter Tommaso Gherardini, commissioned by the Del Nero family, still exists (18th Century).
The final section contains the transcription of some Del Nero family’s archival materials and inventories (1576, 1600, 1606, 1648, 1715, 1737, 1751, 1822, 1823, 1869) on which the historical reconstruction of the properties and collections, dealt with in the first part of this essay, is based.
Nuova luce su Plautilla Bricci pittrice e "architettrice"
Focusing on Plautilla Bricci (1616 - post 1690), a very unusual case of female painter and architect in seventeenth-century Rome, this paper presents unpublished paintings and proposes new attributions. Bricci debuted on the Roman scene between 1660 and 1670, when she received two important commissions by Elpidio Benedetti, Cardinal Jules Mazarin’s agent in Rome: the architectural design and fresco decoration of his villa Il Vascello, later destroyed, and a large altarpiece with The Glory of Saint Louis IX for a chapel in San Luigi de’ Francesi. The latter was the only painting of Plautilla Bricci known till the present paper, that sheds light for the first time on her work for Poggio Mirteto (Rieti), hometown of Andrea Benedetti, Elpidio’s father. Using both newly discovered archival sources and stylistic analysis, the author identifies a processional standard and an altarpiece painted by Plautilla Bricci in 1675 and around 1685 respectively. Furthermore, the identification of a painting by Bricci in the Collegiate of Poggio Mirteto leads to believe that she also took part in the project for the stucco decoration of that church, since this appears to be closely related to the stuccos she had designed for the Benedetti chapel in San Luigi de’ Francesi.
Il Cenotafio di suor Maria Raggi in Santa Maria sopra Minerva. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Lazzaro Morelli e il mecenatismo di Tommaso e Lorenzo Raggi
hrough new documentation the author retraces the executive phases of the creation of Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Cenotafio di suor Maria Raggi in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva; he also provides a new chronology and identifies Lazzaro Morelli as the Bernini’s main assistent. Through new archival documents the author can provide significant clarifications about the patronage of Marquis Tommaso Raggi, who ordered Bernini to create the Cenotafio in S. Maria sopra Minerva and Girolamo Lucenti to realize its own tomb in S. Francesco a Ripa; finnaly the author also investigates the patronage of his nephew Cardinal Lorenzo, commissioner of the tomb of Giovan Battista Raggi in the genoese church of S. Francesco d’Albaro, presently identified as a work of Cosimo Fancelli and Antonio Giorgetti.
Alessandro VII, Raffaello Vanni, Ippolito Marracci.
La ricostruzione di Santa Maria in Campitelli
On the 8th of December 1656 (feast day of the Immaculate conception), the Conservators and the Senators of Rome made a vow: they would rebuild the Church of Santa Maria in Portico in order to give a more decorous location to the image of the Virgin and Childe that had protected the city of Rome from Plague. Yet, pope Alexander VII decided to translate the miraculous image to the Church of Santa Maria in Campitelli that, likewise Santa Maria in Portico, was officiated by the Regular Clerics of the Mother of God. The pope was using this painted image of the Virgin Mary in order to promote the cult of the Immaculate Conception. As a matter of fact, Ippolito Marracci (1604-1675), perhaps the strongest supporter of the Immaculist party in Rome in the middle of the XVIIth century, was active as theologian in Santa Maria in Campitelli. Trait d’union between Marracci and Alessandro VII was the Sienese painter Raffaello Vanni, whom had already deep personal ties with both of them. Early on, in 1644, Vanni had already painted, under Marracci’s request, an Immaculate Conception for the church of Santa Maria in Portico.
ll mecenatismo del Cardinale Angelo Giori. Nuovi documenti su Giovanni Battista Calandra, Giacinto Gimignani et altri
The present study is based on the unprecedented findings of cardinal Angelo Giori (1586- 1662), educator, chamberlain, household and at last cardinal of Pope Urbano VIII. His rise in the Barberini Family corresponds with the artistic choices, interests and assignments of the cardinal, native of the Marches. He in fact matured them right during the years of service at the Papal Family, to which he was bounded by a deep attachment, so much that with Urbano VIII’s death, Giori decided to retire and live in solitude, in his Roman house on the Janiculum.
Among the unprecedented payments are to be noticed first the assignment given to the mosaic worker Giovanni battista Calandra for “una madonna con Cristo et San Giovanni (1641)”, identified with the mosaic copy of Raphael’s The Holy Family Meeting the Infant St John the Baptist (Madonna del Passeggio), and presently kept in Saint Petersburg (Ermitage Museum); secondly the assignment given to the painter Giacinto Gimignani for a “quadro della flagellazione alla Colonna di Nostro Signore” (1643), placed in Camerino, at first within the curch of Santa Maria in Via, and presently in the city museum.
La collezione Muselli di Verona. La quadreria negli anni Ottanta del Seicento
he collection of paintings gathered by Giacomo Muselli in Verona and continued by his sons Christoforo and Gian Francesco was one of the most prestigious art collections in northern Italy in the seventeenth century.
Several studies have already shed light on the events that led to its sale and transfer to France by Louis Alvarez in the 1680s on behalf of the Marquis of Seignelay. To date however no study has been carried out to clarify the quantitative and qualitative evolution the collection underwent generation after generation or to reconstruct the picture gallery and its arrangement in the seven rooms it was displayed in.
This paper is meant to dwell on these aspects. Above all we wanted the Muselli catalogue to include many paintings still having no history and to leave out pictures mistakenly attributed to the Veronese collection.
As a result, for example, we have brought Rebecca at the Well by Paolo Veronese and Christ and the Adulteress by Michelangelo Anselmi (both in Stamford, Burghley House, now) back to the collections of paintings of seventeenth-century Verona.
Secondly, we have placed things back in their original arrangement, room after room, so that a virtual tour can now be experienced through Muselli Palace as never before.
Agli esordi del Maratta. L’Assunzione della Vergine di Monte Porzio
The study is based on the discovery of an altarpiece of the young Carlo Maratta in the church of Santa Maria Assunta in Monte Porzio, a small village of the Marches, identified by the author with the first public work of the great painter. A lost painting of the Assumption is in fact mentioned by Giovan Pietro Bellori, the most important biographer of Maratta, who said that it was commissioned by Don Corinzio Benincampi, secretary of Prince Taddeo Barberini, when the artist was 17 years old. The picture posted here, which was previously attributed to Andrea Sacchi, was brought to Monte Porzio by Count Camillo Montevecchio in the second half of the seventeenth century and comes from the church of Saints Philip and James in Fano, destroyed in 1899. The attribution of the painting to juvenile phase of Maratta, who in his youth had said “Carluccio of Andrea Sacchi,” is confirmed by a rare etching by James Basire resulting from a lost drawing by the artist, clearly preparatory to this composition. Moreover, as the youth Nativity of the Virgin had been donated by Don Benincampi to the church of St. Clare nuns of Nocera Umbra, also the Assumption today in Monte Porzio was in a church of St. Clare nuns, perhaps for the binding of the Franciscan order with Barberini..
Valeria Di Giuseppe Di Paolo
La Trinità del Borgognone e una nuova versione dell’Apparizione di Gesù Bambino a sant’Antonio da Padova di Luca Giordano. Ipotesi per una committenza barberiniana
his article proposes two addictions to the catalogue of paintings by Guillaume Courtois, known as “il Borgognone”, and by Luca Giordano. Surprisingly the relevant altarpieces, not yet attributed, are set in a not easily accessible church in Monteporzio di Castelvecchio, a small village in the Marche region. The Holy Trinity by Courtois, a prolific and talented draftsman, is well and fully documented in its creative process, from preliminary sketches for single figures and more accurate studies for the whole composition to the “bozzetto” for the purchaser’s approval.
This painting is even more important in the painter’s career, who was Pietro da Cortona’s pupil and Bernini’s most reliable assistant in the seventh decade of the XVIIth century, because is the only public work existing outside Rome and the Roman Castles, where he mostly worked. Saint Antony from Padua has the vision of the Child Jesus by Giordano is actually a new version of a well-known composition, which was clearly a success at the time, two of which are in Rome. In 1649 the Barberini purchased Monteporzio di Castelvecchio and a family’s branch still owns its castle. For this reason the paintings are supposed to be commissioned by them.
"Il di lui genio apparve subito al maestro" Sull’alunnato di Nicola Monti presso Pompeo Batoni
Nicola Monti, born in Ascoli on August 16, 1736, after obtaining an initial pictorial training from the local painter Biagio Miniera, and following the death of the aforementioned, he moved to Rome.
Here he put himself under the guidance of Pompeo Batoni who guided him towards the study of the ancient statuary of Raphael and the great seventeenth-century Emilian paintings. The testimony of Monti’s permanence in Rome is seen by the achievement of important accolades, such as first prize in the third class of paintings in 1758 from the Concorso Clementino and three awards at the Scuola del Nudo, in which he was attending lessons, obtained in the same year, in 1760 and in 1762. Advances in painting earned him two important commissions: an altarpiece for the Roman church of Santa Maria in Monterone and to copy the Ansidei Madonna of Raphael, sold in England by Gavin Hamilton.
Probably around 1764 Monti returned to Ascoli, where he devoted himself to art and family. The prevalent influence of Batoni of the first early works was mitigated over time by the realization of a truly personal style, mindful, however, of what had been studied in Rome. The rich pictorial production of Monti, of which, in the Marche and Abruzzo regions, there has remained innumerable examples testifying, indeed, as the echo of the Roman period which is also visible in the works of his later years, although these are often characterized by a certain stylistic weariness due to the quickness with which he performed the works to deal with a difficult economic situation.
Il ritrovato Paesaggio con Agar e Ismaele della collezione Orsini. Aggiunte al catalogo di Pietro Bianchi, rettifiche attributive in favore di Giuseppe Bottani, Antonio Cavallucci, Luigi Garzi
An unpublished document, that I found in the Archivio Capitolino in Rome, permits to attribute to Pietro Bianchi (1694-1740) the ‘Landscape with Agar ed Ismaele’; cardinal Domenico Orsini (1719-1789) buy it in Rome in 1747 from the heirs of the painter. I ascribe to ‘Il Creatura’ other paintings: two guaches with ‘Ercole e Caco’ and ‘Mercurio nasconde I buoi di Apollo’ (Rome, Megna collection), the canvas ‘Il sacrificio d’Isacco (private collection), ‘Santa Agnese da Montepulciano sana un bambino’ (Rome, private collection). I reconsider the cronology of Pietro Bianchi production and I expel from his catalogue the pictures: ‘San Giovanni Battista’, ‘La Vergine col Bambino’, ‘Paesaggio con la gara tra Apollo e Marsia’ (all in private collections) that were painted, respectively, by Antonio Cavallucci (1752-1795), Giuseppe Bottani (1717-1784), Luigi Garzi (1638-1721). I finish my article with a review of the catalogue of Pietro Bianchi drawings.
Un’opera dimenticata di Marco Benefial e nuove proposte interpretative
The Communion of Saint Petronilla is a mosaic located in the right sordino of St. Petronilla chapel in St. Peter in the Vatican and it was made by Giuseppe Ottaviani by 1726 from a Marco Benefial’s preparatory cardboard. This work is mentioned by few sources, and in the article, for the first time, is investigated in terms of style: it shows how it is influenced by Raffaello’s art, that Benefial probably studied in the Pamphilj collection. Also, the composition of the core group is very similar to other Benefial’s paintings, located in Viterbo: the Baptism of Saint Tranquillino and the Saint Lorenzo and the invalids. Therefore, it is likely that these two works are the result of the one in St. Peter’s.Besides, in the pictures in Viterbo, the influence of coloristic style of Sebastiano del Piombo seems clear: this is because Benefial could know the works of the Venetian painter just in Viterbo. Despite many studies about Benefial, some sources still need to be confirmed: for example, Orazio Marrini mentions two pictures that the artist would have painted for the King of Portugal.
Un’aggiunta al catalogo di Mariano Rossi
This paper proposes to study the genesis and evolution of the biliographical studies about Mariano Rossi (Sciacca, 1731
– Rome, 1807). Moreover the paper intends to scketch out the painter’s first commissions in Rome: from his first public competition
at the Accademia di San Luca in 1754 to the painting The last meeting of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Santa Lucia del Gonfalone
executed in 1761-65 approximately. We furthermore want to relate Mariano Rossi’s career not only with is roman master
Marco Benefial but also with others works of art made by great painters as Francesco Mancini, Sebastiano Conca, Corrado Gianquinto
and Pompeo Batoni.
At last the paper aims to analyse a new painting by Rossi and, untill to this day, unknown: The Massacre of the Innocents. This picture was sold at auction recentely with a wrong attribution to Aureliano Milano, compare with the painting of the same theme (but bigger) executed by Rossi at the church of San Giuseppe alla Lungara (1765-66) the present work can be ascribe to the same artist.
In the end this new discovery intends to illustrate the function of the modello as a moment of fundamental importance in Mariano
Cesare Augusto Detti (1847-1914). Un’inedita documentazione francese
A new discovered series of documents in a french private collection, give some more information about the painter Cesare Augusto Detti (1847-1914). His important knowledge on watercolor technique, learned in Rome, his interesting use of photographic
medium, and his important and less known role in fake artistic objects business at the time. The fact that Detti, in the last years,
has been much studied, rises from these differents and articulated elements. His important figure inside the group “Italiens
des Paris” especially with Boldini and de Nittis – with him he was also part of the artistic society “La Polenta” – place him in
a new light and, as the author rediscovered some photographs of his atelier, he had a relevant part in artistic market between
Paris and Italy at the end of XIX Century.
The author also analyses some watercolors evidently done by Detti from photographs, used by him constantly as fixed examples.
At last, we understand Detti art collection that was not only created for passion but mainly for market, in society with his brother
in law, the copyist and painter, Ignacio Léon y Escosura.
Indice dei nomi e dei luoghi